This video showing you how to remove cat urine odor from your carpet works well if you find the stain while its still wet. Vinegar is a great cleaning and disinfecting solution, but it does have limitations. Cat urine is best removed while it's still wet. It can flushed out of the carpet with a lot of hot water and then cleaned up with vinegar and and hot water mixed at a 1:1 ratio.
As cat urine dries in the carpet crystals form, sometimes called urine salts, corrupting the carpet fibers, backing and pad. They are not water soluble and cannot be removed by water or vinegar. You can rinse some of the urine out of the top of the the carpet but it will remain in the carpet backing and the pad underneath.
Some professional carpet cleaners will use an enzyme based cleaner to remove dried cat urine from carpet, but it's hit or miss depending on several factors. The cats diet or medications may render the enzymes powerless against the urine crystals in the carpet. I highly recommend Chem-Dry's pet urine removal treatment (PURT) to remove dried cat urine stains. In Tampa FL I recommend Chem-Dry of Tampa as a great professional carpet cleaner. They know how to remove cat urine odor from your carpet and upholstery.